Style Sheet


Project Continua



  • Use Times New Roman 12pt. in a Microsoft Word document.
  • If you are a Female Biography Project (FBP) member and writing on an FBP subject, include new scholarship generated by the FBP.


  • In a series of three or more terms with a single conjunction, use a comma after each term except the last, e.g. red, white, and blue

(For more detail and examples of usage guidelines, please use Strunk & White’s Elements of Style:


  • Where initials are given for names, e.g. T. S. Eliot, periods and a space between letters should be used.
  • Do not use periods in names of institutions, countries, academic degrees, decorations, etc., e.g. USA, BL, PhD, DSO.
  • Do not use periods after abbreviated units of measurement, e.g. cm, mm.
  • Book and journal title abbreviations are italic e.g. OED, DNB.


  • Give full names at the first mention (they can be abbreviated thereafter, but ensure the abbreviation is consistent).
  • Use capitals for titles or ranks preceding names, e.g. Lord Elgin; King of Spain.
  • Names ending in -s, -z, -x take the possessive ‘s’ e.g. John Stephens’s.
  • Names of institutions and movements should be in capitals: e.g. Christianity, Marxism, Church.


Use lower case for north, north-east, northern, etc.

Numerals and Dates

  • Use the maximum abbreviation for inclusive numerals, e.g. 78–9, 120–4, 325–67. Numerals in teens should not be abbreviated, e.g. 11–13, 316–18.
  • Spell out numerals in the text when under 100, hyphenating if necessary, e.g. twenty-one. Use Arabic numerals for numbers over 100, e.g. 134 books.
  • Use commas for numbers of four digits or more: e.g. 1,000 or 200,000.
  • In notes, or for exact measurements or cross-references, use the numerical form. Figures should also be used with a measurement, e.g. 5 percent, 60 mm.
  • Roman numerals are used for names of monarchs, e.g. Charles II.
  • Do not abbreviate day or month names.
  • Use BCE and CE without periods. Note that dates should come before BCE and after CE.
  • Use format “July 1, 1963” for dates.
  • Use c. 1749 rather than 1749? in questionable dates.
  • Use b. 1903; d. 1988; fl. 1879.

Quoted Matter

  • Sources of quotations should ALWAYS be given.
  • When quoting material, the punctuation should follow the quotation marks rather than within them – except where the text quoted is a full sentence.
  • Use double quotation marks; for a quotation within a quotation use single quotation marks within the double.
  • Quoted matter in a foreign language should ALWAYS be accompanied by a translation either following it in brackets, or in an editorial note.
  • Quotations of more than five lines words should be set as a separate indented paragraph. Note that we do not indent the first paragraph after an inset quote



  • Use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.)
  • All citations should be in Chicago Style, for example:

For one author:

  1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.
  2. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.

*Note that in the first instance of the citation, the entire information is included.  For subsequent instances, a shortened version of the citation is used.

For further examples see:

  • Cite sources as you would in any academic paper, using Chicago Style in endnotes (not footnotes).

For an example see Tarquinia Molza:


  • To cite FBP scholarship as a source, use the CHLE (Chawton House Library Edition) information. For example, for the biography of Ann Baynard, use:
  1. Helena Bergmann, “Ann Baynard,” Mary Hays, Female Biography; or, Memoirs of Illustrious and Celebrated Women, of All Ages and Countries (1803) Chawton House Library Series: Women’s Memoirs, ed. Gina Luria Walker, Memoirs of Women Writers Part II (Pickering & Chatto: London, 2013), vol. 5, 341-45, editorial notes, 465-66, on 465.
  2. Bergmann, “Ann Baynard,” vol. 5, 341-45, editorial notes, 465-66, on 465.
  • To cite Hays’s Female Biography as a source use:
  1. Mary Hays, “Ann Baynard,” Female Biography; or, Memoirs of Illustrious and Celebrated Women of all Ages and Countries (6 volumes) (London: R. Phillips, 1803), vol. 1, 245-49, on 246.
  2. Hays, “Ann Baynard,” vol. 1, 245-49, on 246.

*Note that the page number(s) of your source AND the entire page range of the biography within the volume should be included in the citation.

The citation information for FBP subjects are on their respective biography pages on the FBP website.  If you do not see the citation information, please contact Koren at


  • Create a bibliography in a separate Word document. Use Chicago Style; for examples, see link to Chicago Style above.


Every bibliography should have the CHLE citation formatted as:

  • Bergmann, Helena. “Ann Baynard.” Mary Hays, Female Biography; or, Memoirs of Illustrious and Celebrated Women, of All Ages and Countries, Chawton House Library Series: Women’s Memoirs, ed. Gina Luria Walker, Memoirs of Women Writers Part II. Pickering & Chatto: London, 2013, vol. 5, 341-45, editorial notes, 465-66.

and also a citation for Mary Hays’s Female Biography formatted as:

  • Hays, Mary. “Ann Baynard.” Female Biography; or, Memoirs of Illustrious and Celebrated Women of all Ages and Countries (6 volumes). London: R. Phillips, 1803, vol. 1, 245-49.

For an example of a bibliography, see Elena Lucrezia Cornaro:

Adding rollover ToolTips

Notice in the image below that for the name “Edward Baynard” there is a comment of text with a short description including birth and death dates.    This facilitates additional information we include on the website that does not encumber the biography.  We add this as a “tooltip” to the website page (text that pops up when the curser rolls over the name).  Please add this type of comment in the draft biography document AS A COMMENT as you see in the below example.  Add information for names, obscure places, or whenever you think the reader would profit from additional information.


Submitting your biography

When you have completed your biography, please submit to Magdalen Livesey, Editor at




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